So, when I bought the USDCAD pair for 1.0471and the price went up to 1.0495, I made 1.0495 – 1.0471 = 0.0024 or 24 pips.

All currency pairs in retail forex are traded in lots. Each standard lot is worth $100,000 USD of whatever currency is being traded. Therefore, when trading the Canadian dollar, the Euro, or any other currency, you would be trading $100,000 USD worth of that currency. The actual amount of that currency will depend on its current price in USD.

To simplify calculations, one can assume that the standard lot size is 100,000 units. Therefore, for a standard lot, a 1 pip change in price represents a change in 10 units or roughly close to $10. When trading 0.1 lot size (mini lots), one pip would be roughly equal to $1.

For novice traders and people with relatively small starting capital it would make sense to start trading in 0.01 lot sizes (also called micro lots), where each pip would be roughly equal to $0.10